Telugu Literature (Optional)
Telugu Literature Optional is highly scoring, deeply absorbing and very interesting
as an Optional Subject in the Civil Services.
- The 3 rd Ranker of the 2016 Civil Services batch, Mr. Ronanki Gopal Krishna took Telugu Literature as an Optional Subject and secured 322 marks i.e. 64.8%. Besides, quite a number of candidates also had secured more than 300 marks out of 500 marks and were placed in good services. In the previous batches also, many had secured high marks and one candidate secured 390 marks out of 500 marks. In the old pattern too candidates were able to secure 421 out of 600 marks i.e. 70%. Thus, Telugu Literature righ from the beginning as an Optional Subject is highly scoring and richly rewarding.
- As a Subject, Telugu Literature is very interesting and deeply absorbing. “Literature” as observed by William Henry Hudson in his famous book An Introduction to the Study of Literature, “is a vital record of what men have seen in life, what they have experienced of it, what they have thought and felt about those aspects of it which have the most immediate and enduring interest for all of us”. In other words, Literature is Artistic Expression of Life through the medium of language. All branches of knowledge in the applied forms is available in Literature. We find Mathematics to Marxism, Freud to Philosophy. Hence it endears everyone primarily on account of its deep and lasting human significance.
- A committee of eminent educationists formulated the syllabus to make Telugu Literature as a useful Optional Subject in the Civil Services. The Present syllabus has been in operation from 2000 onwards.
- An analysis of the syllabus and previous Question Papers indicate that the candidates should approach Telugu Literature in Five Dominions as follows:
What you will learn
- Language: This relates to certain facets of Telugu Linguistics like the language family to which Telugu belongs to, the place of Telugu among the languages of Dravidian family, the etymological history of other names of Telugu language, the evolution of Telugu language over a period of more than two thousand years, the formats of languages, the influence of other languages on Telugu, modernization, standardization, the sentence formation, the process of translation, etc. This gives scope to understand the evolution of Telugu language on scientific lines making us aware of its cultural richness of expression.
- History and Evolution of Telugu Literature: Literature runs throughout the ages in two streams—Written Literature and Oral Literature. Some poets prefer to express their ideas and concerns in Written Form of Literature and some prefer the Oral Tradition of Literature. It gives an idea as to how Telugu Literature evolved over a thousand years and which poet or writer opted to contribute and enrich literature in his own way. We can see not only the evolution of literature, but also the evolution and introduction of different Formats (Prakriyas) of Literature like Champu, Dwipada Sataka, Ragada to Novel, Kathanika (short story), Ekankika (One Act Play) etc. This gives scope to see the trends and movements of Telugu Literature and thought process of Telugu society.
- Traditional Literature: This section contains 6 important selectiveworks of great poets giving a taste of the ages. The first Great Poet in Telugu Literature, Nannaya, the Kavirahmma, Tikkana, Srinadha, Molla, Pingali Surana are representatives of different ages and different genres of poetry. This gives an idea as to how they laid the way for enriching and embellishing Telugu Literature for more than five hundred years.
- Modern Literature: This section contains 9 important selective works of mostly modern poets with varied backgrounds and radical thoughts. Gurajada Appa Rao was a great epoch maker of Telugu Literature and heralded modern thinking in Telugu society. Devulapalli Krishna Sastry represented Bhava Kavitam, (Romanticism,) Sri Sri represented Abyudhadaya Kavitvam (Progressive Movement), Joshuva exploded the tyrannical trend of discrimination in the society in the form of untouchability, Atreya exposed the middleclass mentality in his play-let NGO, and Ravi Sastry depicted the psychological mindset of inferiority complex in human beings in their relationships.
- Commentaries on Important Poems: From both Traditional Literature and Modern Literature, total 10 poems are given for commenting from different perspectives. This gives scope for understanding the themes, characters and poets from different points of view. Questions may be set to comment on poems from Sociological, Historical, Ideological, Psychological Perspectives, or from Aesthetic, Rasa, Dhwani, Vakroti, Auchitya Approaches, or Formal and Structural or Imagery and Symbolism Formats. These perspectives are very useful to look at literature in its enriched way.
- Distribution of Marks: The above syllabus is divided into two papers of 250 marks each.
- In each paper, there are two sections—Section-A and Section-B.
- There are 8 Questions in both Sections of each paper.
- Candidate has to attempt five questions in all in each paper.
- Question No. 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, three questions should be attempted choosing at least one from each Section.
- Normally Questions 1 and 5 contain 5 sub-questions carrying 10 marks each.
- Rest of the each question contains 3/4 sub-questions with varying numbers of marks in a specified manner.
- In the case of Paper-2, Questions 1 and 5 contain five poems each demanding commentary in specific approach as mentioned in item number 5.
- Though marks are distributed equally among four Sections, scoring of marks depends on a strategy of choosing the questions. It depends on the experience and guidance of the mentor.
- Those who approach Literature with a balanced view not restricting himself either to Traditional Mentality or Modern Outlook alone would score very high marks and enjoy the richness of Literature in its perspective.